Friday 9 June 2023
Wind conditions of Hungary

Two main effects are characterizing the wind conditions of Hungary, the base flow determined by the general circulation and the modifying influence of the topography. Wind is distinguished into its direction and speed. The direction of the wind means where the wind blows from.

 7. ábra

Figure: The average annual wind speed (m/s) and prevailing directions in Hungary (20002009)

In the upper air of the temperate climatic zone the prevailing winds are the Westerlies, but at lower altitudes they are significantly modified by the topography. Due to the location of Hungary the prevailing wind is the northwestern, while the southern winds are secondary maxima (Fig.). The northwestern base flow of the general circulation is more emphasized in Eastern Transdanubia and between the rivers Danube and Tisza, while east of the Tisza the prevailing wind is northeastern. However, due to the different circulation patterns the wind direction is not permanent, the relative frequency of the most frequent wind is only around 1535% in Hungary. Thus, in 6585% of the time the wind does not blow from the prevailing direction.

The wind speed is considerably determined by local effects. Apart from macro scale patterns, the wind speed depends on the relief, the land cover and other objects (e.g. buildings, trees, etc.). Based on the average wind speed, Hungary can be classified as a moderate windy region, the annual means of wind speed are varying between 2 and 4 m/s (Fig.), but significantly different values can also be measured due to the above-mentioned reasons. The wind speed has a typical intra-annual variability, the windiest period is the first half of spring, while the lowest wind speeds can usually be observed during the beginning of autumn.

On average, there are 122 windy days per year in Hungary (i.e. when the strongest gust exceeds 10 m/s), from which 35 days are gale (i.e. the strongest gust exceeds 15 m/s).